Anishinabek support behind Oka barricades uphold historic Alliance

By: Johnny Hawk

“Chief Yellowhead rose up and made a speech and exhibited the great Wampum belt of the Six Nations, and explained the talk contained in it. Yellowhead stated that this Belt was given by the Nahdooways to the Ojibways many years ago about the time the French first came to this country.”  –   Documented Proceedings of an Anishinabe and Haudenosaunee Council to renew Alliance, January 21, 1840 recorded by Peter Jones

As 2015 marks the 25 years since the Oka Crisis along with the 400 years since French Colonist Samuel De Champlain instigated a devastating intertribal war to access lands of the Wendat, Haudenasaunee and Anishinabek; what ties these commemorative dates together is a historical alliance that often goes unrecognized. It is through the voices of those that also go unrecognized who uphold these alliances in contemporary battles that can share lessons to help our ongoing resurgence as Nations in the spirit of the One Dish with One Spoon Wampum.

Many Indigenous communities and individuals gave support in many ways to the Kanienkehaka during the summer of 1990 through solidarity blockades and the many caravans that delivered donations.  As countless people wanted to stand with the People of the Pines, the police and army prevented any attempts for supporters to join them however two Anishinabek who were part of a handful of Warriors from other Indigenous Nations unmask their experience.

Ken an Anishinabe from Chippewa of the Thames who wants to be identified only by his first name tells his story as an armed 19 year old helping the Kanienkehaka protect their ancestral graves.

“One of the Mohawk guys was so hard on us Chippewa and saying things like the Chippewa aren’t even showing support but he didn’t know about the help on the outside because it was like being in a cocoon with no information coming in. I had to keep telling him, I’m Chippewa. He didn’t believe me because I was with the Oneida Warrior Society that came and he would tease me saying, you don’t sound like a Chippewa. ” explains Ken as he chuckles about not speaking soft and slow with what he calls the stereotypical Chippewa accent.

For many the use of being armed for self defense is a controversial issue when invading colonial forces attempt to settle disputes with Indigenous Communities who have valid historical grievances. The Mohawk Warrior Society helped demonstrate the assertion of the Kaneienkehaka as a Nation and the need for trained organized protection for its people just as any Nation would employ when under attack.

“We had red alerts and a buddy system. We would do recon, the women would take care of the men and we had spiritual people where everyone had a role to play. Some of the guys had military training and there was also survival and training camps in the Mohawk communities in the years before that centered on what it meant to be a warrior and all that helped out but I remember a fighter jet that flew by and they could’ve dropped a bomb and just ended it right there and there would’ve not been anything we could’ve done.” Explains Ken

Ken’s community Chippewa of the Thames neighbors Oneida of the Thames where he was just in his teens when he started seeking out his culture where he joined the Oneida Longhouse for spirituality and eventually the Oneida Warriors Society in the late 80’s.

“When the Crisis was over we were like rock stars and there was so much bravado and ego going on.  The Grandmothers noticed how we were behaving. I remember a Clan Mother coming to see me and banned me from the Warrior Society and told me I’d have to make amends for my behavior in the Longhouse. She started opening up my eyes to what a warrior really is.” explains Ken.

“Is there a need today for militancy? I don’t know. I still have friends though who were involved that are still very active and militant. For me I think we need to pick up our pipes, go into our lodges and get back to our clan system and become who we really are as Anishinabek. It took me a real long time to get where I’m at today. If that happened again today, would I pick up my AK and march off? No I wouldn’t but if somebody else did, there is always a positive that comes out of anything.” explains Ken who is now a Grandfather and spends his time passing on teachings to his Grandchildren and being involved in and following the Longhouse ways.

One of the well known photo's from the Crisis of a Warrior known as “Freddy Kruegar” facing off with a Canadian Soldier was a University of Saskatchewan Student named Brad Larocque an Ojibway from Regina
One of the well known photo’s from the Crisis of a Warrior known as “Freddy Kruegar” facing off with a Canadian Soldier was a University of Saskatchewan Student named Brad Larocque an Ojibway from Regina

Ken along with another warrior from his community were not the only Anishinabek on the frontlines, one of the well known photo’s of the Crisis was of a Warrior known as “Freddy Kruegar” facing off with a Canadian Soldier who was a University of Saskatchewan Student named Brad Larocque an Ojibway from Regina.

An Algonquin Anishinabek from Temiskaming First Nation in Quebec, Kevin Stanger was 20 years old when he participated. Stanger can be seen on the documentary Acts of Defiance at a community celebration in Kanawake for those who made this stand and were released from custody a week after the Crisis was over. Kevin shares some of his experiences from the summer of 1990 and how it shaped him.

Algonquin Anishinabek, Warrior, Kevin Stanger on Cover of People of the Pines
Algonquin Anishinabek, Warrior, Kevin Stanger on Cover of People of the Pines

“I wasn’t raised with my culture and found spirituality, teachings on nationhood and everything I was looking for behind the barricades. It gave me pride and responsibility in trying to rebuild my own Nation. It also helped launch me being active where I participated in standoffs in the States and Canada where I also became involved with the American Indian Movement and also stopped the Adams Mine in my territory that would have contaminated our water.” explains Stanger.

A major effect that assimilation has on Indigenous people is producing a passive and submissive ideology when it comes to resistance of colonialism and defending territory and rights explains Stanger.

“After the crisis my community would make fun and ridicule me and call me “Mohawk” and “Oka Boy” because of what I represented when I went there. I was someone willing to stand up and a lot of my people are assimilated. I am like a mirror when they look at me, they see what they are not and see someone who is doing something and then they look at themselves as not doing anything and so they want to break the mirror. Our people have been stereotyped, that they’re peaceful and not like the Mohawks. That’s just an excuse to do nothing.” explains Stanger.

When identifying if there is a need today for Warrior Societies and the need to be armed Stanger says this.

Stanger photo'ed again standing on the left side
Stanger photo’ed again standing on the left side

“The way the world is going with the depletion and destruction of natural resources, the droughts, famine, natural disasters and economy falling apart we will see people from the cities coming for our resources, the street gangs and organized crime will still be a reality and we will need to be prepared because of the danger that is coming. People who think we shouldn’t be armed and organized are living in a fantasy world. When our people go and do these one day blockades they need to know the seriousness of what they are doing and that it’s not a game where people can get hurt and we need to strategize and have a plan and be organized, we need our Warrior Societies as Anishinabek.” explains Stanger.

 

For Kevin being a Warrior is not only about militancy but begins with knowing who you are.

“A lot of people think a Warrior or Warrior Society is about picking up a gun. It’s about knowing who you are, where you come from, your history and ceremonies and being there for the people, listening to your aunties and uncles. It’s about taking care of your family. I go to the Three Fires Midewewiin Lodge of our Anishinabek People and I addressed the lodge that we needed to bring back our Warrior Society and the ceremony after that Eddie Benton brought back the Ogitchida Society.” explains Stanger.

Kevin is also an educator where he published his own grassroots newspaper and delivered it door to door within his community where he wanted to educate is own people on their rights and history but found resistance at times by the Band Council.

“I’ve been asked by the non-native people in my area to come and share my experiences and give talks in the schools and even in the churches but my own people try to do everything to stop me from talking in our own community where they don’t want me to have a voice. I could have a lot to share where we need to be as a Nation but they don’t allow me to.” says Stanger.

“This experience has helped me to become who I am today.  The people behind the barricades are like family and the Mohawks treated me good I tip my hat to them” says Stanger.

The Anishinabek who participated on the frontlines during 1990 may not have known they were upholding a historic alliance but nevertheless their support showed the strong unity that exists among Indigenous Communities where Haudenasaunee peoples have supported many Anishinabek communities as well in their stands of resistance throughout the years.

1701 Great Peace of Montreal demonstrates the Alliance between Haudenasaunne and Anishinabek and the Head Clans of the Territorial Council Fires
1701 Great Peace of Montreal demonstrates the Alliance of 30 Nations including the Haudenasaune and Anishinabek and shows the Head Clans of the Territorial Council Fires. A Peace for 60 years lasted until European influence yet again caused division but this time at the hands of the British

 

The Anishinabek and Haudenasaunee developed this Alliance after the Beaver Wars in the late 1600’s exemplified in Four Wampum belts, known as the One Dish with One Spoon, The Ojibway Friendship Belt and two others.  This alliance serves also as a resource management agreement where each Nation would respect each other’s territory and war no more and if one requires assistance in defense of their lands they would help each other. One of the Belts speaks on Five Territorial Council Fires where each is represented by that territory’s head Clan. These Anishinabek Territorial Council Fires are located in Ste. Sault Marie, Manitoulin Island, Penetanguishene area, The Narrows at Lake Simcoe and Couchiching, and New Credit in what is known as so called Ontario.  Recently there has been a grassroots group of Anishinabek established called ACTION who are relighting these territorial council fires and have moved into Awenda Provincial Park in Penetanguishene to reclaim that area for these initiatives and who are seeking guidance from veterans in the movement like Ken and Kevin who have already built strong unity amongst the Haudenasaunee and have a background of resistance.

Recognition in NYM Magazine of Anishinabek as a Warrior Nation
Recognition in NYM Magazine of Anishinabek as a Warrior Nation

Mainstream history and media have always emphasized the Mohawk and Sioux as being the fiercest Nations of resistance where the Anishinabek reputation as warriors has experienced a more modest marginalization however it was Anishinabek who defeated Sioux and Haudenasaune aggression, pushing them back into their territories when they wagged war upon Anishinabek. It was Anishinabek through Pontiac’s Campaign that captured Five British Forts and Anishinabek under Chief Yellowhead who assisted and held off American fleets in Lake Ontario during the war of 1812. The most decorated soldiers in WW1/WW2 were Anishinbek, Francis Pegamahgabow and Tommy Prince. It was Anishinabek who founded the American Indian Movement and Native Youth Movement and who made such stands at Anicinabe Park in Kenora, Fishing Wars in Wisconsin, fighting against forestry at Golden Lake, expropriation of lands in Ipperwash and logging in Grassy Narrows.  Why we need to recognize these voices like Ken and Kevin is to remind our people who perpetuate a passive ideology that we have a Warrior Spirit too and long history of resistance.

In 2015 as we honor the 25 years since the Mohawk people made their stand it has also been 20 years since Ts’Peten Defenders at Gustufson Lake and the killing of Anishinabek land defender Dudley George by Ontario Provincial Police.  As we empower our fighting spirit and organize, we also need to give voice and perspective on some realities.

In 1991, a year after the 1990 Mohawk Oka Crisis, a reporter from the Montreal Mirror met with some Rotiskenrakete at the Mohawk Nation Office in Kahnawake. He had information about the death of Surete du Quebec Corporal Marcel Lemay during the para-military attack on the Mohawks of Kanehsatake on July 11, 1990. Lemay was in charge of the internal investigation of police corruption and was about to report his findings which could’ve brought down some high officials in the force and government in regards to the Mohawk “Civil War” in Akwesasne. Corporal Lemay worked behind the desk investigating police misconduct. On July 11, 1990 he was ordered to suit up with a bullet-proof vest, helmet and M-16 to take part in a military style attack on Mohawk men, women and children, minutes after the attack, Lemay lay dead. Immediately following the attack SQ Internal Affairs descended on Lemay’s home and seized all his documents. Mrs. Lemay told the media, “I don’t hold the Mohawks responsible for the death of my husband”

During the Ipperwash Inquiry of events leading to the death of Dudley George at the hands of the OPP, three Ontario Provincial Police were killed in automotive accidents before their scheduled testimony in the inquiry. The incident commander the night Dudley was killed, Insp. Dale Linton, died in a vehicle accident as well as Sgt. Deane the one who shot Dudley was also killed in a vehicle accident as well as another officer all who died in separate incidents before they were to testify in a judicial probe. The George family has always sought to seek information on who gave the orders to go in that night. I am not saying the Government killed their own but only that these “coincidental incidents” were convenient for those who gave orders. If you are an agent of the State reading this, remember that you too may be just an expendable asset that coincidentally may have an “accident” after your government orders you in to kill people defending their rights and lands.

As I talked with these Uncles and others who were legitimately at the Oka Crisis and can back it up, I’ve found out that two people that I’ve had encounters with who boast about being at the Oka Crisis were actually not.  One of whom makes such claims among our grassroots circles where many relatives are misled and hold this person up with “warrior cred”. This other person who has more Anglo features then Mohawk which he claims to be and resides near our territory is never seen at functions within Indigenous communities. This person claims also he was at Kanehstaton/Caledonia in 2006 where I participated yet never saw him there. He invited me to his home once where he claims to be unemployed but has two very expensive vehicles, a three door garage attached to a beautiful big house in a very privileged white neighborhood. I am not attempting to cause paranoia, out to slander, create divisions, nor am I going to name names however there are some people in our circles who claim to be things they are not which is the point I am trying to make. I myself am no warrior or role model where I struggle with my own demons and go against what I preach at times but my family, clan, community and nation help me to help myself where organizing within our own territories and community helps with security issues within our movement where everybody knows who’s who.

The reality in our communities is there are many of our own people out of ego that self identify and play medicine person claiming to have gifts, who claim to be warriors, traditional clan leaders not acknowledged by their own people where personal bias’, clique’s, nepotism, hierarchy and other forms of colonial behaviors are being perpetuated in our “decolonization” and resurgence movements.

At the same time the other side of this issue is the real threat of having our own people and non-natives as informants for government agencies. As we try our best to give a voice to the voiceless such as Warriors like Annie Mae Pictou Aquash who was killed by her own people within the American Indian Movement as a result of the FBI’s COINTELPRO we must acknowledge and learn from these mistakes and not allow government tactics to affect our unity.

With the explosion of Idle No More which has introduced many of our people to “activism” and with some of our resistance circles there is a loose collective of grassroots people across our territories that come and go and which leaves this kind of organizing open to infiltration and manipulation where people can be misled and hurt by people with personal agenda’s. This type of free for all is also seen in spiritual movements.  How we can avoid tragedies of the past is by evolving our resistance movement. A merging of our resurgence of Traditional Territorial Councils, our Clan Governance, Medicine Societies, empowering the Women as true title holders who connect us to our community and territory, reviving our own justice systems and knowing who belongs to what community and who has certain roles and responsibilities. These solutions can combat some of the major issues we see today. This is what I have learned from these Uncles as the role of a Warrior. It all begins with reviving and picking up our own institutions, culture, spirituality and ways of governance.

Before we get to concerned with alliances in the Two Row maybe we can rebuild what as already been here on Turtle Island.

In the spirit of the One Dish with One Spoon.

“The council fire was then struck with flint and steel, and the pipe of peace having been filled, it was lighted with the new fire, and the Mezhinuway (Aide-de- camp) presented it to each of the chiefs of the Six Nations, then to the Ojebway chiefs, and afterwards to the warriors present. John S. Johnson, one of the Mohawk chiefs, informed the council that the Onondaga chief, who kept the council fire or “ talk “ of the Six Nations, would then speak in their behalf […] The Onondaga chief, John Buck, made a speech and exhibited the wampum belts, the memorials of the old treaties, and explained the talks contained in them. There were four belts.” – Peter Jones, 1861. History of the Ojebway Indians

Advertisements

Anishinabek Assertion of Jurisdiction and Title at ACTION’s Camp Oshkimaadziig

By: Kaikaikons aka Johnny Hawk

Assertion of  Anishinabek Clan System, Law of the Land, Jurisdiction and Title of our Traditional Territories can not only hold accountable Canada to its own constitution and Nation to Nation Agreements but help protect our shared lands and waters from Industry. In the spirit of Aboriginal History Month and Aboriginal Solidarity Day I wanted to share how we are not Aboriginal but Anishinabek with title to our Lands that we never extinguished. If you would like to organize with ACTION and help build up and relight your territory’s Council Fire, please contact me.

Kaikaikons aka Johnny Hawk on behalf of himself and on behalf of the Kaikaikons Family of the Caribou Dodem of the Aisance Band of the Anishinabek Nation in the so called territories known as Ontario and on behalf of the Beaver Council of the Territorial Council Fires of the Anishinabek and Haudenasaunne Alliance Belt, and on behalf of the Anishinabek Confederacy to Invoke our Nationhood and the Oshkimaadziig Unity Camp.

I, Kai Kai Kons of the Caribou Dodem a sovereign person of the Anishinabek Nation, make oath on my Eagle Feather and say as follows:

  1. I am of the Anishinabek “Lowered from Above” Nation where our Clan Governance System passed onto us through the act of birth by our Mothers connects us to original female as well as the star and spirit and earth worlds expressed in our Creation Story which is our Law of the Land. I am of the Caribou Clan where I carry responsibilities and sovereignty through my Spirit Name, Language and Clan passed onto me by Wawasgone and Neeganasup. I have been misidentified all my life as John Courtney Hawke, Indian 1410167801ofthe Beausoleil First Nation, Christian Island, Indian Band, Number 30 Reserve. I am currently in the process of removing myself from the illegal Indian Act registry that has been imposed upon me, so I can make these assertions of who I am as an Anishinabek. Although my community is identified as Beausoleil First Nation, Christian Island, its proper name is Gchi Namemnissing, (Big Sturgeon Island) within the territory of the Beaver Council Fire Territories of the Anishinabek Nation.

 

  1. John “Kaikaikons” Hawk of the Caribou Clan my Great-Great Grandfather is buried on Beausoleil Island located on our former reserve under the Aisance Band, north of Penetanguishene Bay. Joseph Hawk, my Grandfather passed on his Grandfather and fathers English given name of John to my father John Lambert Hawke, which was also passed on to me. My Grandfather, Joseph also passed on the Anishinabek Spirit Name of his Grandfather, Kaikaikons to me, so I would seek out and know our identity and make such assertions of who we really are. At the time that the British Officials were making Treaty’s in the mid 1700’s and early 1800’s with our Band whereas our peoples were displaced on the Coldwater Narrows Reserve Experiment inwhich Christianity was also being imposed. Christian English names were assigned to our people not only to identify whose who within our Band for Colonial purposes but also where the Colonial Officials sought to extinct our family lineage, clans and knowledge of our connection to our territorial clan areas.

 

  1. Stacey Amikwabi aka McQuabbie is a sovereign Anishinabek of the Beaver Clan and Amikwabi Peoples of Kitchi-Kitigaaning, Ogawamenong. He has done extensive research in regards to his clan, family and community who are the Amikwabi , the Beaver Clan. His research of historical documents exposes our interconnections of our families and clan territories and Indigenous Title to these territories and the fraudulence committed by Indian Act Band who are mere agents of the Crown as well as the Crown and Canadian State itself . Stacey has brought forth a Constitutional Question in the Ontario Courts in regards to development within our Territories and who is also a representative of the Beaver Clan of the Anishinabek Territorial Council Fires within the Anishinabek and Haudenasaunee Alliance Belt. He is also a Beaver Clan Representative of his territory in which we are organizing under ACTION. His research of historical treaties and documents will also be used to back up my assertions where we both are working together, representing our territories in assertion of our Indigenous Title.

 

  1. The Anishinabek and the Wendat Alliance was evident within the eastern areas of Georgian Bay as documented by early accounts by French colonist Samuel De Champlain. The Amikwabi who are of the Anishinabek Beaver Clan had a strong alliance with the Wendat. The Wendat who were located in what is now known as Huronia and Simcoe County in central Ontario were of a different Indigenous Group belonging to the Iroquoian Family. The Wendat Confederacy, Tobacco, Neutral Nations who were of the Iroquois family had conflict from being connected within the Haudenasaunee Confederacy and Territories of their relative Nations such as the Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Cayuga and Onondoga. The Wendat and Anishinabek created an alliance based on Trade. Some historical accounts and oral history claim that the territory of the Wendat, Neutral, Petun and Tobacco of what is now known as Central Ontario was originally Anishinabek Territory and whereas the Anishinabek allowed these Peoples who were fleeing from disputes amongst their Iroquoian Families were allowed to take refuge in their territories.

 

  1. The Beaver Wars which lasted for almost a Century was instigated by European colonists to exploit Indigenous Lands and create divisions. The French and Dutch and Indigenous Nations of the Iroquois, Anishinabek and Huron were all involved. The area involved so called central Ontario, eastern shores of Georgian Bay. The Anishinabek eventually pushed the Iroquois out of their territories back south to their territory south of Lake Ontario in the late 1680’s and established a Peace and Alliance Agreement known as the One Dish One Spoon Belt in 1701 in Montreal.
  1. The 1701 Great Peace Treaty of Montreal   was a peace treaty between New France and 40 Indigenous Nations of Turtle Island. It was signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 Indigenous Nations. The French, allied to the Hurons and the Anishinabek provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again. Present for the diplomatic event were the various peoples; part of the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Anishinabek Algonquian peoples which included representatives of the Anishinabek Beaver and Caribou Clans of the Georgian Bay Area.
  1. The Aisance Band of the Chippewas of Lakes Huron and Simcoe known in historical documents and treaties are of the great Anishinabek Nation whose immense territory stretches from what is known today as Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Today these tribal decedents whose last hereditary Clan Chief was John Aisance of the Otter Clan have been displaced through coercion and duress by the imposition such illegal treaties and policies on so called Christian Island, Ontario Canada which is a registered Canadian Indian Reserve known as Christian Island 30 Reserve and contemporarily referred to as Beausoleil First Nation. The Otter Clan was the Head Clan for the area around Georgian Bay where the area of Penetanguishene Bay was The Beaver Council Fire of five Territorial Council Fires within the Anishinabek and Haudenasaune Friendship Belt.
  1. The Anishinabek and Haudenasaunee Friendship Wampum Belt is an alliance and agreement between these two Nations that reaffirmed the Dish with one Spoon Agreement that ended the Beaver wars between the Haudenasaunee and Anishinabek which were instigated by colonial influence. Within this Agreement the Haudenasaunee acknowledges the Five Territorial Council’s that are headed by a specific Clan.

The Reverend Peter Jones, who was a Mississauga Anishinaabe from the Credit River (now Toronto), recorded the following proceedings of a council between the Anishinaabe and the Haudenosaunee, held Tuesday, 21st January, 1840. This is an excerpt of that speech given by the keeper of the belt Chief Muskwaki or Yellowhead of the Caribou Clan in order to renew “the treaty of friendship with the Six Nations of Indians on the Grand River.”

“Chief Yellowhead rose up and made a speech and exhibited the great Wampum belt of the Six Nations, and explained the talk contained in it. This Wampum was about 3 feet long and 4 inches wide. It had a row of White Wampum in the centre, running from one end to the other, and the representations of wigwams every now and then, and a large round wampum tied nearly the middle of the belt, with a representation of the sun in the centre. Yellowhead stated that this Belt was given by the Nahdooways to the Ojebways many years ago – about the time the French first came to this country. That great Council took place at Lake Superior.

That the Nahdooways made the road or path and pointed out the different council fires which were to be kept lighted. The first marks on the Wampum represented that a council fire should be kept burning at the Sault Ste Marie. The 2nd mark represented the Council fire at Manitoulin Island, where a beautiful White Fish was placed, who should watch the fire as long as the world stood. The 3rd Mark represents the Council fire placed on an island opposite Penetanguishene Bay, on which was placed a Beaver to watch the fire. The 4th Mark represents the Council fire lighted up at the Narrows of Lake Simcoe at which place was put a White Rein Deer. To him the Rein Deer was committed the keeping of this Wampum talk. At this place our fathers hung up the Sun, and said that the Sun should be a witness to all what had been done and that when any of their descendants saw the Sun they might remember the acts of their forefathers. At the Narrows our fathers placed a dish with ladles around it, and a ladle for the Six Nations, who said to the Ojebways that the dish or bowl should never be emptied, but he (Yellowhead) was sorry to say that it had already been emptied, not by the Six Nations on the Grand River, but by the Caucanawaugas residing near Montreal.

The 5th Mark represents the Council fire which was placed at this River Credit where a beautiful White headed Eagle was placed upon a very tall pine tree, in order to watch the Council fires and see if any ill winds blew upon the smoke of the Council fires. A dish was also placed at the Credit. That the right of hunting on the north side of the Lake was secured to the Ojebways, and the Six Nations were not to hunt here only when they come to smoke the pipe of peace with their Ojebway brethren. The path on the Wampum went from the Credit over to the other side of the Lake the country of the Six Nations. Thus ended the talk of Yellowhead and his Wampum

(LAC RG 10, Vol. 1011, Quoted from Darlene Johnston, “Connecting people to place: Great Lakes Aboriginal History in Cultural Context, paper prepared for the Ipperwash Inquiry, July 2004).

Some Historians believe that it is not a Whitefish at the Council Fire of Manitoulin Island but of a Sturgeon, the Sturgeon Clan. As well Rein Deer and Caribou in the history books are connected and are meaning of the same clan.

  1. The Coldwater-Narrows Reserve Experiment was the first trial of the implementation of the Reserve System in Upper Canada established in 1830 by the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, Sir John Colborne, in an attempt to create a self-sustaining farming community for the Chippewas of lakes Huron and Simcoe and to further implement colonial policies that were in breach of the Nation to Nation Agreement of 1764. The Chippewas of Coldwater-Narrows lobbied for six years in an attempt to secure title deeds and self-management of their lands. Although they were not successful in obtaining deeds, arrangements were made in 1836 to transfer management of the reserve and ownership of the property on the Coldwater-Narrows reserve to the Chippewas on March 31, 1837. However, during the same period, the Coldwater-Narrows reserve was allegedly surrendered by the Chippewas, for sale by the Crown to settlers. A fraudulent surrender document was signed in Toronto on November 26, 1836. The lands that used to be part of the Coldwater-Narrows reserve were sold to third parties between 1838 and 1872. In 2012 Canada’s Indian Act Band Councils of Beausoleil First Nation, Chippewa’s of Rama using Canada’s Specific Land Claim Policy settled this historic injustice and Surrendered their title to 10,000 acres for $308 Million and where they were not the rightful representatives and who are mere Representatives of the Crown. These Band Council’s own legal representatives currently are suing these councils for an additional bonus of 12 Million dollars which exemplify the merit of these Councils and their failure to assert Anishinabek Jurisdiction, Laws, Title and the Nation to Nation Agreements our ancestors fought for and agreed too as well as to who they really are accountable to.
  1. Anishinabek Confederacy to invoke our Nationhood/ ACTION is a union of traditional territorial Council Fires establishing the reemergence of Anishinabek Spiritual, Socio-Political and Economic Institutions in assertion of inherit Anishinabek Jurisdiction, Laws and Responsibilities expressed through the Clan Governance System that has been given to us through our Creation upon Great Turtle Island.

ACTION was cofounded in May 2012 by two young men from Chimnissing Anishinabek Territory as a result of the continued imposition of Canada’s Indian Act Band Councils and these Band Council’s continued illegal surrenders of traditional Anishinabek Lands and Title. ACTION states there is no representation of Anishinabek Jurisdiction that asserts our Sovereignty, the Nation to Nation Relationship affirmed and acknowledged in the many historical agreements and cases between Anishinabek and the Crown and affirmed in Canada’s own Constitution.

ACTION states that Canada’s illegal imposition of its laws, policies and these surrenders of these Band Councils are a breach of the Crowns affirmation and acknowledgement of the Jurisdiction of the Indigenous Nations of North America’s Jurisdiction in the 1705 Mohegan Tribe vs State of Connecticut Case, the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the 1764 Niagara Covenant Chain Belt as well as Canada’s Constitution affirming Aboriginal Rights and Title in Section 25 and 35.

The co-founders of ACTION address that their tribal group has been subjected and continues to be under a position of coercion and duress by the Canadian State and the Crown. ACTION members state their tribal group have been dealt with illegally through land surrenders in the Collins Treaty Settlement, Williams Treaty and Coldwater Narrows Experiment, Coldwater Narrows Settlement, the imposition of the Indian Act and the Indian Act Band Council and Canadian policies and laws that are imposed in such a manner of coercion and duress which are not reflected of the Nation to Nation Agreements and other said affirmed rulings as well as their own Self Determination as a Sovereign People of the Anishinabek Nation.

  1. Oshkimaadziig Unity Camp was established by ACTION as a platform for the said ACTION initiatives and to reclaim lands near Penetaguishene Bay known as Council Rock and also known as the Gardens of their tribal group, the Aisance Band which area is also the Beaver Council Fire expressed in the Anishinabek Haudenasaunee Friendship Belt. These lands were illegally misappropriated and designated as Crown Lands which are currently being used as Ontario’s Awenda Provincial Park. These lands were to remain in the possession of the Aisance Band and were not a part of the surrender within the 1785 Collins Treaty or 1798 Penetanguishene Purchase.

In Proceedings of a meeting with the Chippewa Indians of Matchedash and Lake Simcoe in Gwillimbury in 1811 with William Claus the Superintendent, General of Indian Affairs, Chief John Aisance states:

“I request Permission to occupy my Garden around Penetanguishene Bay until our Father’s white children may want to take possession of it.”

The Superintendent General replied with,

“I do not consider that we have a right to take possession of the land until the deed of conveyance shall be executed and there is no objection to you occupying the garden grounds at Penetaguishene Bay.”

Oral History in our community states that these lands have never been ceded and still belong to our peoples meaning our people as in the Tribal Group and not the Indian Act Band Council whereas the Band Council who impose the Indian Act who are mere agents of the Crown and not  authentic representatives of our Tribal Group.

As ACTION reclaim their lands they remind Canada of its lawful obligation to its own Constitution, laws and decisions in such court cases that relates to our Nations title and rights. ACTION in the establishing of this Camp reminds Canada of their lawful obligation in Section 25 of their Constitution which affirms our rights and freedoms within the 1763 Royal Proclamation where we are asserting our Aboriginal Title which our people never extinguished in any Treaty. We remind Canada to its lawful obligation of Section 35 of their Constitution in respect of our Treaty Right that the members of ACTION are represented by in the Treaty of Niagara.

Members of ACTION who are descendants of the Aisance Band of Chippewas of Lake Huron and Simcoe never extinguished their Aboriginal Title within the Williams Treaty where this Treaty is currently in the courts where the Crown failed it its fiduciary obligations where Canada did not compensate for lands in a respectable manner and where fraudulent surrender of rights were forged after its signing. This Treaty is invalid as well was made with Crown Representatives, the Chiefs and Council of Canada’s Indian Act who are not the legal representatives of our Tribal Group and have no right to make such surrenders of Anishinabek Rights and Title for they are mere representatives of the Canadian State and not our Nation, Tribal Group, Hunting Camps or Clans.

  1. ACTION in the occupation of so called Awenda Park also would like remind Canada of the decision of its Supreme Court in the 1999 in v. Sundown. This case provided that Aboriginal people have a right to construct or occupy buildings on public land that is “incidental” to the exercise of existing Aboriginal or treaty rights. Incidental building, as contemplated by the Sundown decision, means a cabin, building or structure used for shelter associated with or reasonably related to the exercise of an Aboriginal or treaty right.
  1. The 1764 Treaty of Fort Niagara was between the Crown and 24 Nations who were part of the Western Lakes Confederacy. The Treaty is based on Peace, Co-existence and Non-Interference and helped to establish the Nation to Nation Relationship that is to exist between the Crown and our Nations. It also serves as one of Canada’s original Constitution Documents as it set the stage in how the Crown’s Settler Government Canada were to conduct itself within our Territories and Nations. This Treaty allowed the presence of the Crown within our Territories, diffused the Pontiac Rebellion and the eventual establishment of Crown’s subjects to establish Canada.
  1. The Williams Treaties signed on October 31st, 1923 addressed the existing claims of the Chippewas of Lake Huron and Simcoe groups that had unresolved title claims of a total of  12,944,400 acres within the Muskokas and Upper Ottawa River, as well as any underlying claims to the lands surrendered by the 1850 Robinson-Huron Treaty. The Williams Treaties intended to secure proper surrender of lands involved in pre-confederation treaties that involved these lands during the colonial period that were highly problematic with faulty descriptions, incomplete documents and failed payments.

In addition to the initial payments and the continuing annuities, the 1923 Williams Treaties preserved the signing bands existing reserves but did not provide for any new reserve lands. As well the recognition of Aboriginal Title and Jurisdiction affirmed in the Royal Proclamation and 1764 Niagara Treaty were not recognized or extinguished within these Williams Treaties which needs to be addressed.  These 1923 Williams Treaties were also made between the Crown and representatives of the Crown, the Indian Act Bands who were not the legal and proper representatives of our Tribal Groups known in these historical records as the Chippewa’s of Lake Huron and Simcoe.

The Williams Treaties also departed from some existing practices included in earlier treaties such as the Robinson Treaties (1850), and the Numbered Treaties, where these treaties established continuing rights to hunt and fish, new reserve lands and yearly annuities. This was not only a departure from what had become an established practice; it also created some potential problems. Nearly half of the October 31st treaty overlapped with territory taken in the Robinson-Huron Treaty. This has led to a different sets of rights over the same territories as the Robinson-Huron Treaty clearly recognizes a continued right to hunt and fish throughout that area.

  1. The Current Williams Treaty Court Case where the beneficiaries of the Williams Treaty are being illegally represented by Indian Act Band Councils who are currently in a Federal Court regarding the Williams Treaty seeking compensation for historical damages involving this Treaty. A Basket Clause was allegedly added to this Treaty after they were signed and evidence of fraudulence and coercion on the Crown’s part regarding this Treaty is also an issue which makes this Treaty invalid whereas we need to redefine as well as compensation provided in regards to this Treaty immediately needs to be addressed.

These issues are currently in the Courts where the Indian Act Bands who are seeking restitution however are not addressing integral and influential questions of Aboriginal Title and Jurisdiction, where they are also not the legal representatives of our Tribal Groups and are mere Agents of the Crown. Their failure to seek affirmation of Indigenous Title and assert our Jurisdiction in regards to this case and issue demonstrates who they really are accountable to.

We have a Clan System, Jurisdiction, Anishinabek Laws and Responsibilities that need to be addressed. This Case has potential to not only assert and reaffirm our Jurisdiction and have it recognized through Treaty but can also be a Case that also helps the many Nations across our Territories, and stop the destruction of our Waters and Lands from Pipelines, Nuclear Waste, Forestry and other Industry within our territories, the failure in these Indian Act Bands to do so demonstrates their allegiance to the Crown and not our Nation.

  1. Indigenous Title to our lands have never been extinguished and as we organize ourselves legally through our customary laws of land and governance structures to assert our title to our lands we remind Canada of its Supreme Court Decisions and how they apply to our historical issues presented in the provided historical documents as we assert our jurisdiction and title to our lands.
  1. R v. Guerin (1982), the first Supreme Court of Canada decision handed down after the Constitution Act 1982, declared that aboriginal title was sui generis and that the federal government has a fiduciary duty to preserve it.[30] R. v. Simon (1985) overruled R. v. Syliboy (1929)[31] which had held that aboriginal peoples had no capacity to enter into treaties, and thus that the Numbered Treaties were void.[32] A variety of non-land rights cases, anchored on the Constitution Act 1982, have also been influential.[33][34][35][36][37][38]

Delgamuukw v. British Columbia (1997) laid down the essentials of the current test to prove aboriginal title: “in order to make out a claim for aboriginal title, the aboriginal group asserting title must satisfy the following criteria: (i) the land must have been occupied prior to sovereignty, (ii) if present occupation is relied on as proof of occupation pre-sovereignty, there must be a continuity between present and pre-sovereignty occupation, and (iii) at sovereignty, that occupation must have been exclusive.”[39][40][41][42][43][44]

Subsequent decisions have drawn on the fiduciary duty to limit the ways in which the Crown can extinguish aboriginal title,[45] and to require prior consultation where the government has knowledge of a credible, but yet unproven, claim to aboriginal title.[46][47]

In 2014 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously for the plaintif in Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia. Rejecting the government’s claim that Aboriginal title applied only to villages and fishing sites, it instead agreed with the First Nation that Aboriginal title extends to the entire traditional territory of an indigenous group, even if that group was semi-nomadic and did not create settlements on that territory. It also stated that governments must have consent from First Nations which hold Aboriginal title in order to approve developments on that land, and governments can override the First Nation’s wishes only in exceptional circumstances. The court reaffirmed, however, that areas under Aboriginal title are not outside the jurisdiction of the provinces, and provincial law still applies.

1024px-Grande_Paix_Montreal170 Peace Treaty of Montreal, Anishinabek Caribou, Otter and Beaver Clans signed

1782015_10152183223269938_1057916238_nHistorical Documents describing Anishinabek Family Territory and Clans

11420353_10152784224391946_627369514_oProceedings at Gwillumbury 1811 Anishinabek never ceeded Gardens of Penetang Bay

11416441_10152784226706946_967253265_o

10511065_733107150144362_9150788987570629919_n (1)

Anishinabek Matriarchy: Father or Mother’s Clan?

“Power of the men was balanced by the political and social power of the Clan mothers, the women elders. Everyone in the family listened and respected the wisdom of the Gi-ma-ma-nen.”                                                                                                                                           – Wubekeniew (1995) Red Lake Anishinabek

As the prophetic New People of the Seventh Fire, the Oshkibimaadiziig, we are finding that what we are picking back up from the trail has also been subject to colonial manipulation where we need to ask critical questions before applying them to our resurgence. One of the integral institutions in our resurgence and asserting our sovereignty is to know where that sovereignty comes from. Many Anishinabek believe that we follow our Father’s Clan but when we analyze our language, teachings and natural laws we find something contrary to popular belief.

“The Earth is said to be a woman. In this way it is understood that woman preceded man on the Earth. She is called Mother Earth because from her come all living things. Water is her life blood. It flows through her, nourishes her, and purifies her.

Gitchie Manito took four parts of Mother Earth and blew into them using a Sacred Shell.  From the union of the Four Sacred Elements and his breath, man was created.

It is said the Gitchie Manito then lowered man to the Earth. Thus, man was the last form of life to be placed on Earth. From this Original Man came the A-nish-i-na’-be people.

In the Ojibway language if you break down the word Anishinabe, this is what it means: ANI (from whence) NISHINA (lowered) ABE (the male of the species).”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            – Grand Chief of Midewiwiin Society, Eddie Benton Benai, Miishomis Book

THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG?

In the teachings of Grand Chief of Three Fires Mideweiwiin Society, Eddie Benton Benai in his Mishomis Book, Original Man or Anishinabe who later becomes Nanaboozho, is created and “Lowered from Above” and is directed to walk with Myingun, the Wolf to name all things on the Earth. This connects to how we get our names and the first naming ceremony. When Anishinabe walks with Myingaan he notices, everything has a counterpart and companion and he wonders where his female counterpart is. Creator says his will come at a much later time.  A teaching after this, Anishinabe leaves his Grandmother’s Lodge to go and seek his Father, the West Wind.  This confuses me as we were just told Anishinabe, Original Man or Nanaboozho was just Created by Creator and Lowered from Above.

In the Mishomis Book on how Clans were given to the Anishinabek it says the first people were living in disharmony so Creator cleansed the Earth of them through a Great Flood. Creator than gave the second peoples of Earth a Clan system for governance so they will not live in disharmony.

In other teachings compiled from various Elders by Anishinabe linguist, Basil Johnston, we hear of Geezhigo Kwe or Sky Woman who is “Lowered from Above” on the back of a turtle and gives birth to twins who destroy themselves and later on has a boy and girl. In each Creation perspective though there is a commonality of a Great Flood that cleanses the Earth of People that were living in disharmony. Nanaboozho survives on a floating log with animals and helps recreate the earth we know today as Turtle Island. In other teachings we hear Nanaboozho is one of four sons of Winona, a Human Earth Woman and the West Wind Spirit.

There seems to be two very distinct versions of our Creation stories where either it is a male of female that is first “lowered down.”  This is important because if all life is created by the Earth and later on it is a Female that is created and lowered down this helps us to understand ourselves a little more. There is no clear distinct understanding why we take on our Father’s Clan in the Mishomiis Book only that Clans were given to Anishinabek.

ANISHINABEK MATRIARCHY: LOOKING WITHIN

In our language many people including my parents tell me an old Anishinabek word for Mother is Dodem, which also is the word for Clan. Doodosh is the female breast and doodoshabo is the mother’s milk that sustains her child. In Anishnabemowiin when we say where we are from we say “N’doonjiba” which connects to the “doodem”.  I’ve always heard we will find many truths in our language and our language holds so much knowledge of who we are. The connections of these words I feel explain that Anishinabek in fact are a matriarchal people where we follow our mother’s clan.

It is the Women who cared for the Earth, the Lands, the Home and their Gardens. It was the male who left the home community and married outside of his community and lived within his wife’s community. In our Anishinabek Tradition’s after a Mother givers birth, she takes the placenta that connects her to her child and buries it out on the land. This is to connect the child to the earth and her territory. Later the Child is told to go and find that spot so they are always connected. Through the Mother we are given life and connected to the Earth, so why wouldn’t we not follow her Clan?

Human Beings in our teachings it is said were created last and the animals were told that Humans were coming and they were to help teach them.  Anishinabek have learned so much from the Bear, where to get medicines from, the fish, the four leggeds, the birds helped teach, how to build a home, how to hunt, how to gather. The animals also taught matriarchy which is exemplified in this natural law, within the animal kingdom.

Today in our communities, we see our Grandmother’s, Aunties, Daughter’s, and Sisters, take control to look after the people when there is a need. The Women organize to make sure the well-being and community are looked after. Matriarchy reveals itself naturally within our communities and yet most deny Anishinabek are a matriarchal society.

I have also heard from a few Midewiwiin Relatives that at one time, so long ago, Anishinabek in fact had Clan Mothers, which tells us we were Matriarchal.  If many say we Anishinabek are not matriarchal and follow our fathers clan, why at the same time we are told, we are our language, we are our environment, the animals help teach us because in those things are matriarchy. Our Language and Natural Laws don’t lie however in our teachings there seems to be some varying perspective where man is made a prominent figure and we must ask why that is and why some of those stories are different.

471487_10150988331799938_1361766821_o

COLONIZATION: God made man, Man killed God and made himself God

All Earth’s people at one time were tribal peoples and therefore would’ve based their society on the natural environment which most likely was of matriarchal influence. European Colonization that has dominated the world can find its beginnings in Egypt. The story of Jesus is a common story passed down from ancient Egypt that is merely “astrotheology”, worship of the sun and its movements.  Romans eventually took this knowledge that expressed the Creator’s power through the Sun and made man into God creating the Christian Religion to keep the populous distracted and obedient to manmade hierarchy religion to be controlled.

Most of the common Religions have in some way a connection to the occult fraternity that is Freemasonry. Since the Egyptians there seems to be this common organized fraternity behind many of the leading institutions who colonize peoples of the world using the same formula of imposing illusions that creates obedience and control. They take the sacred knowledge of peoples and nations around the world and ban it, to hide the truth or manipulate it and impose their own lies for control.

1661122_10153061261889938_4784909357466720898_nThere are many branches and religions connected to this grand fraternity such as the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, A Roman Catholic Military Order whose members comprise of the Jesuits, the Monarchy and even Politicians of Canada are members. The Jesuits were sent in to neutralize, learn our languages and customs and convert our peoples to Christianity they were used as scouts to help colonization efforts.

Some of our people even have mistaken the Jesuits and newcomers as Gods. Sickness from these newcomers that infiltrated our communities only helped in the conversion of our peoples as our peoples thought baptism and accepting their religion would serve as a cure. In the Huron/Wendat peoples Jesuits learned the Wendat language and told the Jesus Story creating things such as the Huron Carol. Making Jesus into a Wendat so those peoples can identify.

So if our ceremonies eventually became illegal and banned and many converted into Christianity why do we believe our institutions such as the Clan system would not be manipulated as well to help us convert and change our most integral institution that connects us to our lands.

LAW OF THE LAND OR LAW OF THE WATER

Throughout our interactions with our so-called allies, the new comers, we have invited them into our communities and left ourselves and our sacred institutions open to infiltration and manipulation.  The colonizers only recognized the authority of the men in our communities and whereas most treaties were signed not by the authority of our women the true title holders but signed and accepted by men. Most of our treaties and agreements are invalid because they disregard the authority of our Nations the women.

Our so-called allies, the British, also misappropriated our symbols to create an illusion to keep us distracted and obedient. They used wampum belts and obtained our peace and alliances through agreements such as the Two Row Wampum Belt and the 1764 Niagara Covenant Chain Belt. This also demonstrates the misappropriation of our cultural diplomacy tools that have been manipulated. So if these things can happen I’m sure the fundamental institution that is our clan system would also have the same colonial stains.

In the colonial interactions of these newcomers from 1700’s- 1800-‘s many of our own influential peoples were initiated in the new comers occult fraternities. Joespeh Brant a Chief of the Six Nation became a Free Mason where he is also credited for breaking up this Indigenous Confederacy as a result for his allegiance to the Crown. An Anishinabek Georg Copeway, Kahbehgobow who documented and translated many Anishinbek customs was also a Freemason. Why this is important is because it helps illustrate how our institutions were subject to manipulation by so-called allies in collaboration with our own influential peoples propped up by these allies. Today we need to also be critical who we invite in and who we may allow drive our institutions and movements.

As our institutions slowly became infiltrated and manipulated and outright banned, we were made to adopt new ways of beings, which included laws. How the colonizer is able to go and steal other lands is through these occult organizations such as the Vatican’s laws, using Papal Bulls and the Law of Water, Maritime Admiralty Law.  Today we blindly accept the Law of the Water, which is all about currency, the law of shipping resources, the only way it can be accepted on land is by consenting to register yourself as a corporation under the birth certificate where the corporate entity of your name is a product and owned and involves a court system.

The Law of the Land is our Clan System and the Women and once we know who we really are and uphold our Law of the Land their illusions can start crashing down. We need to empower our Women and before we begin any Resurgence of our Nation, assertion of Jurisdiction and Sovereignty we need to educate ourselves on what is behind many laws and customs we have today and why we follow our Father’s Clan and not our Mothers.

Sovereignty is first asserting our Spirit Name and our Clan Responsibility. I am only raising the questions as why do we follow our Father’s Clan and not our Mother’s? In everything we are as Anishinabek it reveals we are matriarchal but many of our people refuse this and call that blasphemy even most elders. I have attended some ceremonies and gatherings of our Midewewiin where I assumed I would find some answers and noticed a lot of Patriarchal and behavior from leadership where women were scolded and in positions not as prominent as their male counterparts.

If we are to regain who we are, we need to ask some critical questions where we are not trying to be disrespectful but the reality is even our Clan System and Medicine Societies are not exempt form the colonial stains and influence. We need to empower our women to take back their rightful places of authority within our Nation and I do believe we as Anishinabek follow our Mothers Clan and are a Matriarchal People, it reveals it self in so many places. We need to further ask these questions and seek the truth before any resurgence of our own institutions and sovereignty or we will keep perpetuating a colonial lie.

 

 

Press Release: Algonquins Constitutional Challenge

ALGONQUINS OF TIMAGAMI NATION

Bear Island, Lake Temagami, On P0H 1C0

PRESS RELEASE

Bear Island, Lake Temagami, Ontario

May 24, 2015 for immediate release

On April 17, 2015, a member of the Algonquins of Timagami Nation filed a “Notice of Constitutional Question” in the Ontario Provincial Court, Haileybury, Ontario in Northeastern Ontario.

May 26, 2015 has been set as the the date for the “CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGE” before a Judge in the Ontario Provincial Courthouse in Haileybury, Ontario.This member of the Algonquins of Timagami was unable to hire a lawyer that was prepared to take on his case and advance his position; that he is a member of the unsurrendered Nation of the Algonquins of Timagami.  He had a lawyer, but the lawyer quit, and refused to file his case, so now an Elder of the Algonquins of Timagami Nation will be assisting him in this historical Constitutional Challenge.

This member’s legal position was filed in the Ontario Provincial Court, in the town of Haileybury, Ontario and with the Attorney General of Ontario’s Constitutional law department along with the  Attorney General for Canada’s Constitutional lawyers, last week.

The position that the member is taking is one that has been very rarely used  in this country.

Few other members of the Algonquins of Timagami have advanced this type of argument  and have been successful and have had all their charges withdrawn, due to the position they have taken on unsurendered Indian lands. The postion that this member will be taking is that the Ontario Provincial Court and the Ontario Provincial Police do not have legal jurisdiction to arrest, charge and incarcerate a member of the

Algonquins of Timagami on unsurrendered Indian Territory.  There is no valid treaty that covers this area of Ontario and therefore; there shouldn’t be any courthouses, jails, Ontario police or incorporated towns or patents of any kind on the UNSURRENDERED LAND OF THE ALGONQUINS OF TIMAGAMI NATION.  There are international laws that protect the Indians from being molested or disturbed in their “Hunting Grounds.”

For more information or clarification contact:

Margaret “Verna” Friday

mvfriday@hotmail.com

705.329.4778

The Indian Agent and Slave Master

By: Johnny Hawk

“The Indians have always been dependent, even in these days of when you would think they would be more self-reliant, I have them coming to me asking if I will do this and that for them.”            

  • E Hurl Indian Agent at Christian Island On (Beausoleil First Nation)

The Indian Act of 1867 codified the rights and responsibilities of the Indian Agents. “The term ‘agent’ means a commissioner, superintendent, agent, or other officer acting under the instructions of the Superintendent-General.” (Indian Act 1876:3.11)

The Indian Agents were in control of everything in the lives of our people from the 1860’s to up to the late 1970’s. They were paid from our funds and controlled all of our funds and whereas our people would have to seek permission for such things from asking to leave the reserve by permit, sell their produce to asking for rations to survive. This created a continuing effect of dependency, servitude and inferiority issues with white people. I feel in our biiskabiyaang “decolonization” process we need to address and shed some light on this remaining socio-economic-historical behavior pattern that both the opportunistic white person and the dependent Indian continue to exist in.

In our systematic oppressive common experience in which we have with our Afrikan comrades we find that there are similar conditions we need to be aware of which will help us in the liberation of our thinking. We must first be consciously aware how our mentality and actions still reflect these colonial stains in order to liberate ourselves. Afrikan people had the Slave Master and our people had the Indian Agent.  Brother Malcolm X in his day made a significant reference from Black people’s history that showed the distinction of those who were comfortable with the dependent slave mentality and those who wanted freedom.

“There were two kinds of Negroes. There was that old house Negro and the field Negro and the house Negro always looked out for his master. When the field Negroes got too much out of line, he held them back in check. He put ’em back on the plantation.

The house Negro could afford to do that because he lived better than the field Negro. He ate better, he dressed better, and he lived in a better house. He lived right up next to his master – in the attic or the basement. He ate the same food his master ate and wore his same clothes. And he could talk just like his master – good diction. And he loved his master more than his master loved himself. That’s why he didn’t want his master hurt. If the master got sick, he’d say, “What’s the matter, boss, we sick?” When the master’s house caught afire, he’d try and put the fire out.  He didn’t want his master’s house burned.

He never wanted his master’s property threatened. And he was more defensive of it than the master was that was the house Negro. But then you had some field Negroes, who lived in huts, had nothing to lose. They wore the worst kind of clothes. They ate the worst food. And they caught hell. They felt the sting of the lash. They hated their master. Oh yes, they did. If the master got sick, they’d pray that the master died. If the master’s house caught afire, they’d pray for a strong wind to come along. This was the difference between the two and today you still have house Negroes and field Negroes running around. I’m a field Negro.”                                                                                            – Malcolm X

Today we don’t have the Indian Agent but the role of administrating assimilative Indian Policy is the responsibility of Chief and Council’s. There are some grassroots minded Chief and Council’s along with our people who are employed in their administration and believe in standing up for our issues, sovereignty, land and water protection but who are still operating and employed under this Indian Act. Any authentic assertion of self-determination and jurisdiction would only see funds being cut off from the government and like the House Negro most will continue to serve our oppressor because they have fear they have something to loose like their houses, cars, financial security etc if they authentically embrace their beliefs.

In my community like many others our Chief and Council settled a historic land dispute using Canada’s  biased Specific Land Claims Policy. The Lawyers who happened to be white were working on this case for almost 30 years. They became a part of our community and were considered close friends in our community. They suggested we take what was being offered and after the leadership made their surrender and accepted our pay off those lawyers who were considered almost family are now suing us for additional monies for a bonus on top of the significant amounts they we’re making off us for decades as well as their cut from the surrender. There are many stories like this throughout our Territories.

If you travel through so-called Indian Country you may also notice that a majority of economic entities such as stores on reserve are owned or in partnership with white people who are also at the forefront of our economies in our communities. What had inspired me to write this in the first place was the way I and many others in my community are treated by the particular owner of the only store in our reserve who happens to be a white woman who married into our community. I  thus became frustrated and began to question and notice who really are in positions of influence in our communities and circles and why.

“We should own and operate and control the economy of our community. The white man is too intelligent to allow someone to come in and control his economy but you will let the white man come in and control your economy. The white man comes into our communities and uses his privilege and education and exploits you” – Malcolm X

Even though the Indian Agent does not exist today our people from the long historic injustice and dependency express this learnt behavior where we place people in positions of influence in our communities which make us look like we can’t do things for ourselves, creating our own Indian Agents. As well I see opportunistic white people who weasel their way into our communities, circles, movements and organizations being employed or making a profit or prophet off our misery while we continue to struggle in poverty.  They are the store owners, lawyers, consultants, drug dealers, health providers, administration personnel in the aboriginal industry, teachers, and yes even our comrade allies at times.

I am not anti-white people  or anti-ally or trying to be divisive against those allies who do good work but even among our allies many do not see how their privilege and good intentions can also be seen as counterproductive. An Auntie in so called BC shared that a group of solidarity activists wanted to join their sovereignty camp and help their cause by providing workshops. The camp worked almost the whole year gathering food from out on the land and preparing it only to have the activists who came to “help” eat up most of their resources which could have fed more of their own people who knew just as much about living off the land, and teaching themselves about who they are.

It is this historic behavioral pattern that we need to start addressing that will help us progress in our self determination however when I bring this up I am looked at as being negative, divisive or racist. It is hard to address these issues because there are many “Indian Agents” in our communities that are close to our people however I feel this is a very real issue we must acknowledge and correct the colonial behaviors imprinted in our mentality that keep us dependent.

THE BEST NATION IS A DONATION

The decolonization process itself has become a Subculture for a majority of our people who identify themselves as activists, self appointed spiritual guru’s or self appointed warriors unattached to a functioning Warrior Society and even self appointed traditional leaders raised up not by the people. Actions such as long distance awareness “Walks” to the oppressors institutions, “Speaking Tours” that fuel the transportation and oil industry, “Day of Action Blockades” that we advertise openly defeats the purpose of our actions and bring injunctions and charges where we participate in their courts and we bring “heat” to future organizing, these are all mere tactics that most times are employed to seek media attention to get a message out.  Most fail to realize how we these tactics and this decolonization subculture we’ve created cooperates and help fuel the same industries and systems we are fighting against. I feel we must decolonize decolonization and evolve the revolution and incorporate fully those institutions we say we are and fighting for.

The majority of our people are reactionary where we react on our emotions which causes us to employ reactionary mobilization tactics against injustice without first thinking and being strategic and planning and being organized so we can combat our battles successfully and continuously. Since our resources are in the hands of our adversaries who fund our people and agents their “employees” in our own community to keep their institutions running our own original institutions and liberation has next to no resources. This has caused many of our people who mobilize and organize to rely on donations and handouts. Every day there is a new campaign on social media where our people are seeking funds to go towards those tactics employed by the Decolonization Subculture which are usually temporary and again where the enemy manipulates this energy of those relatives which is another exploited resource that fuels their industries. We are not a subculture we are Nation with many of our own institutions and resources. We are not activists, we have clans, spirit names, delegated responsibilities, clan mothers, herditary chiefs, medicine societies. We are more then a campaign and cause.

11021100_10153125073589938_6193770897527500821_nIf we are serious about Self Determination we need to realize the difference of mobilization and organization. We need to realize that we have immense resources available that can keep us sustained. If we are to talk on “warriorism” then us warriors need to grow our own food and harvest and hunt and be the example of Self Determination or we will continue to reap what we sow.

In our Indigenous and Afrikan movements of liberation, Kwame Toure aka Stokley Carmichael and John Trudell who are some key figures in our history elaborate on the conditions we face in mobilization and organization and being conscious.

” The job of the conscious is not to teach the people to be conscious but to make them conscious of their unconscious behavior. Mobilization is temporary and Organization is Permanent.” – Kwame Toure

” They don’t care how we protest demonstrate any of it they own it all. They sell us the water we drink at our protests, sell us the magic marker’s to make our signs and if we cooperate the sell us the permits, if we cooperate the police get to have war games, they absorb it all. We need to realize how even in our rebellion we cooperate.” – John Trudell

We have a lot in common with our Afrikan Comrades and I believe it is our two peoples that are key in leading the change to combat colonialism and capitalism that is destroying this planet. We need to alliance ourselves but be respectful to each other and aware not to go into each others communities and give direction and become dependent on each other.

We need to be aware that differences of Mobilization and Organization, that our decolonization process is not a subculture of activism and that we are a Nation with our own institutions and societies. We need to be aware of the Indian Agents and Slave Master that still exist within our communities who are masked as allies and your friend that only perpetuate dependency to control us.

ACTION is working together with the Indigenous Peoples Liberation Party where together have hosted a celebration of Afrikan and Native Resistance. Below is a panel discussion with Enaemaehkiw Thupaq Kesiqnaeh (IPLP Kanada), Kooper Caraway (IPLP USA), and Omali Yeshitla (APSP USA, Black is Back Coalition and Africa.

In the Spirit of Total Resistance and Self Determination,

Johnny Hawke

 

Zaasakwe Podcast

“Zaasakwe” in the Anishinabek Language translates to War Cry or is a call-out that expresses our Warrior Spirit. Zaasakwe is a Podcast that interviews newsmakers and music from the frontlines of our struggle and ressurgence and resistance movement. We also take a critical look at colonial policies and industry and how they are affecting our Nation, Lands, Waters and Rights.

In this Episode, Southern Organzation of Manitoba Chiefs,  Grand Chief Terrance Nelson talks on the need to partner with Industry. Anishinabek Ogitchida Kwe Jo Seenie of the Wolf Clan talk on Chiefs Organizations who Sell-out, her work in searching for Missing Women, and Warrior Society protocols and Anishinabek World View. Anishinabek Academic and Ryerson University Professor, Hayden King of Beausoleil First Nation discusses Canadian Policies and how we can use them to our advantage.

If you have a topic to discuss or want to be featured or would like to feature this podcast on your community radio station please contact Johnny Hawke at ojibwayrebel@gmail.com  705 247 2120

Soon to be availble on ITUNES

Flood the Chiefs Email Anti Pipeline Campaign

Please Help Flood the emails of these Chiefs to get them to boycott this Gathering. If these Chiefs can bow down to the government about releasing their financial documents there shouldnt be a problem sharing their emails…Use the Template below or create your own but lets flood the shit out of their emails……Share it around and help this Campaign!

10846038_10154917405560182_8867247919987596974_n
Cc: wallace fox <wallace.fox@onionlake.ca>, Perry Bellegarde <perry.bellegarde@gmail.com>, Jackie@berensriver.ca, Nelson Bunn <Chief.n.bunn@gmail.com>, chief.abraham@black-river.ca, Chief Rollie Hamilton <mae_rollie_7@hotmail.com>, “jbear@southbeachcasino.ca” <jbear@southbeachcasino.ca>, johnstagg@hotmail.com, Nelson Houle <nelhoule@live.ca>, David Ledoux <drledoux@wcgwave.ca>, James Plewak <jplewak@yahoo.ca>, davetraverse@mts.net, lakembfirstnation@hotmail.ca, adriansinclair90@yahoo.ca, mchiefowens@hotmail.com, hwshorting@live.ca, Dennis Meeches <ogemakon@mts.net>, eugene.eastman@me.com, haroldcrow@shawbiz.ca, “ghudson@mymts.net” <ghudson@mymts.net>, pfnadmin@mymts.net, cindy_woodhouse@yahoo.ca, cboucher@hotmail.com, chiefrbeaulieu@sandybayfirstnation.com, keekito@hotmail.com, Cameron Catcheway <cameron_catcheway@hotmail.com>, Chief Francine Meeches <meechezf@hotmail.com>, Barry McKay <lynxlegallie@gmail.com>, Melville Wabash <pwabash@hotmail.com>, sam Cruise <crudelsam@gmail.com>, msshannacappo@icloud.com, smoke29@shaw.ca, vincent.tacan@dakotanation.com, rhondagarson@mts.net, Andrea Camp <acamp@exchange.hsc.mb.ca>, jurrius@narpllc.com, John Jurrius <appleton@narpllc.com>, Hector <hperezpacheco@yahoo.com>

 

Weweni’ Boozhoo:

My name is Kai Kai Kons and I belong to the Loon Clan of the Anishinabek Nation and reside in Oshkimaadiziig Camp and am of the Chimnissing Anishinabek.

We are writing you today on behalf of our territory, waters, and future generations and for those whose voices are not respected and represented. We have been asked by our Women who assert themselves accordingly to our Clan System and Laws and who are the true Leadership of our Nation where it is my obligation to the responsibilities of those things I’ve expressed that I am in which I am to addressing you today.

I am also writing you in regards to the illegally imposed Canadian policies, land claim settlements and industries that breach our Nation to Nation Agreements we have with the Crown where you are a representative as an Indian Act Agent commonly known as a Band Chief.

In 1705 in the case involving the Mohegan Tribe vs Connecticut the Crown ruled that the Jurisdiction of the Indigenous Nations of North America exists and is affirmed. This was never appealed. In 1764, the Niagara Covenant Chain Belt was an agreement between 24 Indigenous Nations. This was an agreement based on Peace, Co-existence and Non-Interference and one of Canada’s founding constitutional documents.

There is no representation of our people who wish to assert themselves accordingly in regards to these very sacred and legal agreements. Canada and its Judicial System, Military and their Agents who breach these agreements are guilty of Misprison of Treason and Complicity of Genocide. Our people’s voices are not truly represented as a Nation and who are forced to accept colonial policies under coercion and duress.

We understand Chief Terrance Nelson of the Southern Chiefs Organization of Manitoba has only invited specific Chiefs who are attending the AFN Gathering to an Oil and Pipeline Business Partnership Conference, held December 8th, 2014 at the Delta Hotel 350 St. Mary Avenue, Winnipeg. We strongly advise you to spiritually and legally uphold who we are as a Nation and boycott this event. The Forestry and Oil Industry, Pipelines, Land Surrenders, policies such as the First Nation Lands Management Act are attempts to undermine our Jursidiction, detroy our Waters, Land and Future Generations. You have a chance to start asserting yourself accordingly to who we really are. We strongly advise you to boycott this and address this issue amongst yourselves to stop this development and start a reemergence of our own institutions such as our own political structures and laws. We along with our Future Generations an Ancestor’s are watching.

In the Spirit of Nationhood,

Your Leadership

Decolonizing Indigenous Laws: Does disagreement equate “disrespect”?

1422545_10152863669794938_3659553555118567010_n (1)

“Women are the true jurisdictional authority and title holders of our territories as they are connected to Creator as they give life..but what happens if Women both in grassroots and indian act circles allow policies and land claim surrenders to go through and accept them as in my area…..Do I surrender and jump off the cliff too? and would I be disrespecting Women if I disagree and choose to assert our responsibility as a Human Being/Anishinabek by not given up our tribal sovereignty and protecting lands n waters from resource exploitation….Sometimes I think we forget that the Pipe of Peace has two realities that work together, the Bowl and the Stem”  (The above quote first appeared on Johnny Hawkes Facebook page, and it has been used here without Johnny Hawkes permission.  Please don’t tell on me.)

When I saw this post, it tickled something inside of me for two reasons.  For one is raises the question about accepting leadership from women, but it also indirectly points to the Traditional concept of the Prayer Pipe, and how the stem and bowl work together.   The Traditional concept of the Prayer Pipe, is that the bowl signifies the women energy, and the stem represents the male energies.  The bowl symbolizes mother earth, and likewise the stem signifies all things on the earth.  The way that I was taught, is that the women, who are naturally connected in ways to the feminine energies, (Mother Earth, and Grandmother Moon) speak on their behalf.  The men then recieving this direction from the women, uphold those values and essentially enforce them as law.  What Johnny is saying is that, “What if the womyn are not following the Spiritual Laws and direction that once guided our people, and are accepting land surrender deals?”  Is it disrespectful to disagree with them?  Or as Johnny says “Do I jump off the cliff too?”  But I’d like to expand on this idea a bit, and include people who self identify as Elders, or who have rightfully or wrongfully been granted the “Elder” status.

10700125_768445136549364_8562945701795989130_o

When I began my last (and hopefully my final round of sobriety) it coincided with the Coldwater Narrows Land Claim settlement that my community accepted in 2012.   In the fall of 2011 I went out fasting for the 1st time, I began going to sweat lodges every week, for several months, right up until two weeks before the vote of either yay or nay, to accept the 307 million dollar offer from the Canadian state as a settlement.  (Hidden in the 100 pages of documents was legal jargon that essentially spelled out “extermination”).  I went to a few legal advocates to help me understand all the legal phrases and words, and I went to see the Elders and Healers at Anishinabek Health.  One of the Elders asked me, “What are the Traditional people of your community doing?”  So I eventually made my way up to the reservation to hear mr. Hawke’s take on everything, and at the same time, went to see one of the Pipe Carriers.  The message that I got from that pipe carrier was “I hope you aren’t listening to the Johnny Hawk, because we’ve been fighting for this land claim for a long time….”  (In case you haven’t been following along, Johnny Hawk was adamantly opposed to accepting the land surrender, and his words, and actions are what inspired me to join the cause that eventually became the Oshkimadziig Unity Camp).  Judging by what this Elder and Pipe Carrier was saying, he was hoping for a “yay” verdict on the settlement.  But how could this be?  This was somebody that everyone looked up to, for guidance, direction and healing.  Should I too, unilaterally and unequivocally accept his advice and “jump off the cliff too?”

There was this hollow gnawing feeling in the pit of my stomach, something that beckoned for me to listen to what it was trying to tell me.  But I was still an infant on my ceremonial and spiritual path, and I needed some more help and direction, so I went back to the city to seek it.  I sought out every Elder that I knew, and who ever was available.  At least two of those Elders told me to follow my own intuition, and do what my “heart tells me to do.”  Another Grandmother told me, that in the Mohawk territory where she came from, the Elders advised the people not to accept the casino deal (and the money), and it turned out negatively in ways of increased drugs, addiction, abuse, gambling, impoverishment, death etc.  She warned me from her own experience what might happen when “big money” is handed out to “small reserves”.  But the best advice I received was from Grandfather Vern, who reminded me of the true path of the Red Road. He said “Well you’ve been following the Red Road teachings by going fasting, you’ve been going to the sweat lodges, you have been praying.  Who have you been praying for, and who have you been praying about?”  Grandfather Vern is also the one who taught me to pray, and in that prayer we begin thanking all of Creation for all of the blessings we receive from them).  He plainly pointed out to me, “When you die, and you travel to the spirit world, you won’t have anyone with you.  You will go before the Great Council of Grandmothers and Grandfathers by yourself.  And you will have to account for everything that you have with your life here on Mother Earth.  Whether you chose to accept the deal or not to accept the deal, will be something that you will have to atone for.  But if you truly understand Our Ways (in reference to the Red Road), you will understand that we do not make deals to surrender anything to anyone for any amount of money.”

Johnny’s quote raises some interesting questions, not only regarding women, but some of those that are entrusted to carry those sacred Prayer Pipes too.  Grandfather Vern told me once “There are many people who carry Prayer Pipes that shouldn’t be carrying them.  There was a spiritual movement in the 60’s and 70’s where everyone came out of the woodwork, and people began handing out Prayer Pipes left and right.  Alot of those people hadn’t earned the right to carry those Sacred Items for the people.  I had to earn everything that I carry, my eagle wing, my Prayer Pipes, everything.  How did I earn them? I fasted for everything that I carry.  And how did I become an “Elder?”  It wasn’t like one day, I just woke up with the title “Elder”  I earned that right.  How did I earn that right?  I became a servant to the people.”  He went on to say, “There are far to many people hurting people who do not have the right INTENTION of carrying the Prayer Pipe.  Some of these people don’t even carry the teachings that go with those Prayer Pipes.  That is why I tell everyone that you have the right to question everything.  You have the right to question everyone who calls themselves and Elder, who carries a Prayer Pipe and who runs a Sweat Lodge or ceremonies.  You have the right to keep yourself safe, and the only way you can keep yourself safe is to ask questions.”

I never questioned that Prayer Pipe Carrier on their teachings, and where they earned that right to carry that responsibility for the people.  Probably because Grandfather Vern’s teaching hadn’t sunk all the way in yet.  Or perhaps it was because I had put this person on some sort of pedestal, and that I thought that I was inferior to that person, and I didn’t feel like challenging them on their authority.

 

The Creator has given us a path.  Each of our own paths are uniquely and distinctly our own.  We can’t live someones else’s life, nor should we expect someone to live our life.  The responsibilities that we accept when we follow the Red Road, are our own.  Some people are chosen to Sundance, others are chosen to Sweat Lodge.  Some are chosen to be Fire Keepers or Water Carriers.  Some are chosen to be “Joe the wood chopper guy”, “Or Suzie the cedar picker girl”.  Wherever we land on the Red Road, there are teachings and instructions that go with that Red Road.  Some of those simplest instructions that go with them are the Teachings of the Two Paths (an ancient story I heard once, that is synonymous about “feeding the two wolves”)  These teachings can be simplified into the Grandfather Teachings.  There are the common 7 Grandfather Teachings that everyone talks about, but what about the opposite ones?  No one seems to mention the opposite Grandfather Teachings, yet we know just about everyone who follows them, including ourselves.  Do we speaking the TRUTH, even when it inflicts harms being HONEST to the Teachings?  Is eating food that is bad for our health being RESPECTful to our bodies?  Do we reflect on all these teachings every single time we make a decision?  To do so would be following the direction of the Grandfather of WISDOM.  We live in a world, where some of us have 9-5 jobs, and some of these jobs, may actually be hazardous to our health, and the environment in which we live.  No one can live perfectly by the 7 Grandfather Teachings, that is why there is the opposite Grandfather Teachings (that no one seems to talk about), to remind us, and to teach us, that no one can live saintly without error, and therefore we should and need to raise questions.

If the community members where you come from, are making a deal to surrender traditional lands, and the women, and even the Sacred Pipe Carriers of that community are saying to go with it,  does disagreement equate to disrespect?  Absolutely not.

Looking back on everything now, and knowing everything I do now, I don’t blame the people for making any decisions.  Nor do I blame myself, or the Oshimaadziig Unity Camp for not being able to influence the outcome the way that we wanted to. I have learned that we have to make our own decision from an objective, critical, analytical, and spiritual standpoint.  The Elders keep telling me that the Red Road is the hardest road to walk.  What makes it so hard, is the difficult decisions on that road.  It means standing up for what you believe in.  It means that often times when you do make a stand, you might be standing alone.  But often times when you do make that stand, you might find that others will join your stance.  If our people never made that stand at Wounded Knee, Alcatraz, Anishinabe Park, Gustafsen Lake, Kanesatake, Burnt Church, The Peoples Caravan, The Longest Walk, would we enjoy the relative freedom we do now?  (I say relative freedom facetiously.  Until we are fully liberated from colonization, none of us are truly free, but the point I was trying to establish, is that we aren’t exactly outlawed leaving the reserves, or outlawed from ceremonial practice either.)

I thank Johnny Hawke for making that initial stance and inspiring the courage in me to do so too.  But I also thank all the Elders who helped guide me, and told me to trust my instincts and reminded of the Original Teachings that govern the world in which we live in.

Almost 3 years later, I’m still standing, and I’m still questioning everything.  I encourage everyone to do the same.  Question everything, and everyone.   Except for this article, I am unilaterally and unequivocally perfect!   I follow them opposite Grandfather Teachings to a “T”.  Or do I?

 

Aiyeeeeee!

None of my Relations.